Daily sodium intake influences the relationship between angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism and hypertension in older adults.

Daily sodium intake influences the relationship between angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion polymorphism and hypertension in older adults.
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Freire IV, Casotti CA, Ribeiro ÍJS, Silva JRD, Barbosa AAL, Pereira R,


Freire IV, Casotti CA, Ribeiro ÍJS, Silva JRD, Barbosa AAL, Pereira R, (click to view)

Freire IV, Casotti CA, Ribeiro ÍJS, Silva JRD, Barbosa AAL, Pereira R,

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Journal of clinical hypertension (Greenwich, Conn.) 2018 03 09() doi 10.1111/jch.13224
Abstract

The angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism has been widely reported as being associated with hypertension; however, most studies do not consider environmental/behavioral factors. This study aimed to investigate the relationship among angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion gene polymorphism, environmental/behavioral factors, and hypertension in community-dwelling elderly individuals. All community-dwelling older adults from Aiquara, Bahia, Brazil, were invited to take part in this study. After exclusions, 234 elderly participants were submitted to a data collection, which included sociodemographics, lifestyle and health status questionnaires, clinical assessment, and blood withdrawal. From the blood samples, the gene polymorphism was identified through polymerase chain reaction and patients grouped as II or D allele carriers (ID and DD genotypes). Hypertension was defined by self-report of the condition and confirmed by antihypertensive drug treatment. Chi-square test was used to identify differences in the proportions distributed between groups of each dependent variable (ie, genotype, diagnosis of hypertension, and blood pressure state from medicated patients with hypertension). The prevalence of hypertension was 59.3% and was associated with diabetes mellitus and obesity, but not with angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion gene polymorphism. However, carriers of the II genotype, a salt-sensitivity genotype, exhibited a significantly greater estimated sodium intake. In addition, among medicated elderly patients with hypertension, II genotype carriers exhibited poor blood pressure control, despite similar antihypertensive drug treatment in D allele carriers, while exhibiting a greater estimated sodium intake. Our results provide new evidence regarding the interaction of genetic and environmental/behavioral factors in the genesis of hypertension among elderly patients, as well as in blood pressure control in medicated elderly patients with hypertension.

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