Exome-wide somatic mutation characterization of small bowel adenocarcinoma.

Exome-wide somatic mutation characterization of small bowel adenocarcinoma.
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Hänninen UA, Katainen R, Tanskanen T, Plaketti RM, Laine R, Hamberg J, Ristimäki A, Pukkala E, Taipale M, Mecklin JP, Forsström LM, Pitkänen E, Palin K, Välimäki N, Mäkinen N, Aaltonen LA,


Hänninen UA, Katainen R, Tanskanen T, Plaketti RM, Laine R, Hamberg J, Ristimäki A, Pukkala E, Taipale M, Mecklin JP, Forsström LM, Pitkänen E, Palin K, Välimäki N, Mäkinen N, Aaltonen LA, (click to view)

Hänninen UA, Katainen R, Tanskanen T, Plaketti RM, Laine R, Hamberg J, Ristimäki A, Pukkala E, Taipale M, Mecklin JP, Forsström LM, Pitkänen E, Palin K, Välimäki N, Mäkinen N, Aaltonen LA,

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PLoS genetics 2018 03 0914(3) e1007200 doi 10.1371/journal.pgen.1007200
Abstract

Small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) is an aggressive disease with limited treatment options. Despite previous studies, its molecular genetic background has remained somewhat elusive. To comprehensively characterize the mutational landscape of this tumor type, and to identify possible targets of treatment, we conducted the first large exome sequencing study on a population-based set of SBA samples from all three small bowel segments. Archival tissue from 106 primary tumors with appropriate clinical information were available for exome sequencing from a patient series consisting of a majority of confirmed SBA cases diagnosed in Finland between the years 2003-2011. Paired-end exome sequencing was performed using Illumina HiSeq 4000, and OncodriveFML was used to identify driver genes from the exome data. We also defined frequently affected cancer signalling pathways and performed the first extensive allelic imbalance (AI) analysis in SBA. Exome data analysis revealed significantly mutated genes previously linked to SBA (TP53, KRAS, APC, SMAD4, and BRAF), recently reported potential driver genes (SOX9, ATM, and ARID2), as well as novel candidate driver genes, such as ACVR2A, ACVR1B, BRCA2, and SMARCA4. We also identified clear mutation hotspot patterns in ERBB2 and BRAF. No BRAF V600E mutations were observed. Additionally, we present a comprehensive mutation signature analysis of SBA, highlighting established signatures 1A, 6, and 17, as well as U2 which is a previously unvalidated signature. Finally, comparison of the three small bowel segments revealed differences in tumor characteristics. This comprehensive work unveils the mutational landscape and most frequently affected genes and pathways in SBA, providing potential therapeutic targets, and novel and more thorough insights into the genetic background of this tumor type.

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