Current osteoporosis reports 2017 06 24() doi 10.1007/s11914-017-0384-x
PURPOSE OF REVIEW
Mounting evidence supporting the critical contribution of macrophages, in particular osteal macrophages, to bone regeneration is reviewed. We specifically examine the potential role of macrophages in the basic multicellular units coordinating lifelong bone regeneration via remodelling and bone regeneration in response to injury. We review and discuss the distinctions between macrophage and osteoclast contributions to bone homeostasis, particularly the dichotomous role of the colony-stimulating factor 1-colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor axis.
The impact of inflammation associated with aging and other hallmarks of aging, including senescence, on macrophage function is addressed in the context of osteoporosis and delayed fracture repair. Resident macrophages versus recruited macrophage contributions to fracture healing are also discussed. We identify some of the remaining knowledge gaps that will need to be closed in order to maximise benefits from therapeutically modulating or mimicking the function of macrophages to improve bone health and regeneration over a lifetime.